The 10 Biggest Revelations From Edward Snowden's Leaks

Former intelligence contractor Edward Snowden poses for a photo during an interview in an undisclosed location in December 2013 in Moscow, Russia.
Former intelligence contractor Edward Snowden poses for a photo during an interview in an undisclosed location in December 2013 in Moscow, Russia.
Image: Barton Gellman/Getty Images

One year ago, the Guardian published its first bombshell story based on leaked top-secret documents showing that the National Security Agency was spying on American citizens.

At the time, journalist Glenn Greenwald and the Guardian never mentioned that they had a treasure trove of other NSA documents, nor that they came from one person. Then three days later, the source surprisingly unmasked himself: His name was Edward Snowden.

Journalist Glenn Greenwald and the Guardian won a Pulitzer Prize for reporting based on Snowden's information.

However, strong progress across the main rankings does not automatically translate into European success. Sa Business School at the University of Oxford, for example, rose one place in the MBA ranking, five places in the ranking of open executive programmes and broke into the top 10 of the Executive MBA ranking for the first time by moving up 12 places, but its European ranking remains unchanged, at 10th.

6000家企业等候挂牌新三板 LED照明企业如何应对?

今年,标普500指数的总回报率为14%,比该指数25年期平均年化收益率高出40%。过去12个月,华尔街的首席战略师们一直在上调其目标值。标普500指数出现了50多次创纪录的收盘,几乎所有专业投资管理人士都卯足了劲,至少要跑平该指数。但有些因素让美股投资者要获得高于基准股指的收益,在今年尤为困难。
《危险!》(Jeopardy!):这个游戏节目今年已播出50年(1964年3月30日首播),它证明自己不仅能难住观众,而且能令他们感到意外。不仅是因为主持人亚历克斯·特里贝克(Alex Trebek)留起了胡子(之前13年他都是把胡子剃得干干净净),而且是因为仍有些选手表明自己能刺激观众。今年刺激观众的是亚瑟·朱(Arthur Chu),他采用闪电战式的答题方式,在网上引起一片哗然。他的策略令人兴奋,当然也很奏效:他在锦标赛中夺得第二名(友善的本·因格拉姆[Ben Ingram]最后得了第一)。
3. The root cause of eczema has finally been identified. Scientists have tracked down a series of proteins and molecular pathways that lead to this insufferable skin problem, revealing that the protein filaggrin isn't the sole culprit we thought it was.
The contiguous United States set a temperature record in 2012, a year of scorching heat waves and drought. But, mostly because of the unusual chill in the East, 2014 was only the 34th warmest year on record for the lower 48 states.

1. Secret court orders allow NSA to sweep up Americans' phone records

The very first story revealed that Verizon had been providing the NSA with virtually all of its customers' phone records. It soon was revealed that it wasn't just Verizon, but 6天内3家陶企陷入倒闭危局 优胜劣汰再度考验陶企转型 in America.

This revelation is still one of the most controversial ones. Privacy advocates have challenged the legality of the program in court, and one Judge deemed the program unconstitutional and "almost Orwellian," while another one ruled it legal.

The uproar caused by this first story has led President Barack Obama to endorse a reform to the program, and the House of Representatives to pass the first law that tries to change it.

2. PRISM

The existence of PRISM was the second NSA bombshell, coming less than 24 hours after the first one. Initially, reports described PRISM as the NSA's program to directly access the servers of U.S tech giants like Google, Facebook, Microsoft and Apple, among others.

深圳支持民企发展 “四个千亿”逐渐发挥作用

PRISM, we soon learned, was less less evil than first thought. In reality, the NSA doesn't have direct access to the servers, but can request user data from the companies, which are compelled by law to comply.

PRISM was perhaps as controversial as the first NSA scoop, prompting technology companies to first deny any knowledge of it, then later fight for the right to be more transparent about government data requests. The companies ended up partially winning that fight, getting the government to ease some restrictions and allow for more transparency.

3. Britain's version of the NSA taps fiber optic cables around the world

促进消费稳定增长。
In the US, New York, California and Texas received the most investment. Chinese firms invested $5.4bn in New York, the top beneficiary, with most of the money spent on three big financial services and real estate deals.
Another fashion high-flyer making her mark on the first day of the world-famous festival was Winnie Harlow. The Canadian model - who has the skin condition vitiligo - nearly took Emily's crown, as she made a play for the attention with her elegant belle of the ball outfit.
The Warriors are one of the best teams in NBA history, and you can put their championship run up against any team in NBA history for the best playoff performance ever. But there's also a legitimate question of what this means for the sport. If the best or second-best player of all time stands no chance against this team, what does it mean for the sport's competitiveness? It hasn't been a problem so far, thanks to an extremely wild offseason, but the question remains: what happens to a competitive sports league when it's not truly competitive at the highest level?

Tempora is one of the key NSA/GCHQ programs, allowing the spy agencies to collect vasts troves of data, but for some reason, it has sometimes been overlooked. After a couple of months from the Tempora revelation, a German newspaper revealed the names of the companies that collaborate with the GCHQ in the Tempora program: Verizon Business, British Telecommunications, Vodafone Cable, Global Crossing, Level 3, Viatel and Interoute.

4. NSA spies on foreign countries and world leaders

U.S. President Barack Obama, right, and German Chancellor Angela Merkel are seated together at a G7 dinner in Brussels, on June 4. Their relationship has been tense since reports revealed that the NSA tapped Merkel's phone.

E-cigarettes first started becoming popular in 2012. They work by heating a nicotine fluid to mimic a real cigarette. Their invention is usually credited to Chinese pharmacist Hon Lik, who reportedly created it after he dreamed that he was drowning in a cloud of vapor. His father had died of lung cancer caused by cigarettes. He himself was an unrepentant smoker who had unsuccessfully tried quitting by using a nicotine patch.
In the Robot World Cup Soccer final on June 30th the Dutch robots weren’t up against the Chinese team “Water” from Beijing. Within a minute the Chinese team scored a goal. The Dutch made an equalizer before half-time, yet in the second half team Water scored again.
不可否认,选择最老套的性别色彩似乎有点过分简化,但是潘通拥有庞大的客户群,这种选择不是为了前卫,而是为了找出平均值。

刘志峰:认识和把握城市发展的“四个变化”

Perhaps just as important, stable or falling prices will boost the inflation-adjusted pay of U.S. workers and gives them more bang for their buck. "It's an unambiguous positive for household demand," said Neil Dutta, head of economics at Renaissance Macro Research. "People will have more money to spend."
In addition to WeChat's core private and group messaging functions, users can also find new contacts by using the application's Drift Bottle function, where a user records a message and sends it out to see in a virtual bottle for a stranger to pick up and respond. Its Look Around function, similar to some mobile dating applications, allows users to browse the profiles of other users who are in close proximity. It also has a function called Moments that allows users to share photo albums publicly with groups of contacts, much like photo-sharing application Instagram.

The German newsweekly Der Spiegel revealed that the NSA targets at least 122 world leaders.

Other stories over the past years have named specific targets like German Chancellor Angela Merkel, Brazil's President Dilma Roussef, and Mexico's former President Felipe Calderon, the French Foreign Ministry, as well as leaders at the 2010 G8 and G20 summits in Toronto.

5. XKeyscore, the program that sees everything

XKeyscore is a tool the NSA uses to search "nearly everything a user does on the Internet" through data it intercepts across the world. In leaked documents, the NSA describes it as the "widest-reaching" system to search through Internet data.

6. NSA efforts to crack encryption and undermine Internet security

Encryption makes data flowing through the Internet unreadable to hackers and spies, making the NSA's surveillance programs less useful. What's the point of tapping fiber optic cables if the data flowing through them is unreadable? That's why the NSA has a developed a 中央经济工作会议:明年我国稳健的货币政策要松紧适度 to circumvent widely used web encryption technologies.

One of the men even swoops in to give the girl a quick kiss on the cheek. He turns around in mock-embarrassment and gives his friend a hug, while the young woman speaks to her friend in French.
['gri:nhaus]
单词summary 联想记忆:
除了要符合质量标准之外,进口商品还必须按中国规定正确标注。

各国新规刺激可穿戴LED渐成全球电子产品“宠儿”

The new data released yesterday represent the first snapshot of global trade for 2015. But the figures also come amid growing concerns that 2016 is already shaping up to be more fraught with dangers for the global economy than previously expected.
根据中国海关总署发布的数据,这些进出口贸易使11月中国的贸易顺差比10月的贸易顺差382亿美元提高20亿美元,至402亿美元,远超9月份的6个月低点286亿美元。11月的贸易差额也超过了经济学家预期的350亿美元。
"We will set the exact date and location for our operation in consideration of weather conditions, but it will not be publicised," said Park Sang-Hak, a former defector who has led a series of balloon launches
在人类的历史上,我们正处于最和平的年代。早在二十世纪四十年代,每10万个人中就有300人直接死于战争。我们可以很欣慰地告诉你今天这个数字少于1。
这种增长为中国电影业未来的发展奠定了坚实的基础。
The drama was broadcast during the summer holiday, targeting young audiences who prefer fantasies and romances.
"When the actual dependency ratio of pension insurance gets down to three to one, the payment cannot be lower than 17 percent. If it drops to two to one ratio, it means that everyone is going to pay 25 percent. The financial burden gets heavier when the dependency ratio gets lower. The restructuring of pension system must be finalized in two years." Yang said.
3. 凯特?阿普顿
And, at random, some other highlights from the list:

7. NSA elite hacking team techniques revealed

The NSA has at its disposal an elite hacker team codenamed "Tailored Access Operations" (TAO) that hacks into computers worldwide, infects them with malware and does the dirty job when other surveillance tactics fail.

Der Spiegel, which detailed TAO's secrets, labelled it as "a squad of plumbers that can be called in when normal access to a target is blocked." But they can probably be best described as the NSA's black bag operations team.

5. Mother Nature
哈佛大学著名教授格雷厄姆?阿利森(Graham Allison)也警告说,东亚已走向“修昔底德陷阱”(Thucydides’s trap),他并补充道:“当一个迅速崛起的大国与一个老牌霸权国竞争时,麻烦接踵而来。”2013年初,时任卢森堡首相的让-克洛德?容克(Jean-Claude Juncker)警告称,2013年看起来像1913年一样危险。2013年底,《经济学人》杂志(The Economist)也警告说,“一个世纪已过去,当今世界却与那个导致第一次世界大战爆发的时代有不少相似之处,令人不安。”
But it's the best pay on offer for a major world leader.
或许,你能让高中版的韦德停下脚步,但是,当韦德长到6尺4寸时,他变得无法阻挡。
The Florida Project

8. NSA cracks Google and Yahoo data center links

When bulk collection or PRISM fails, the NSA had other tricks up its sleeve: It could infiltrate links connecting Yahoo and Google data centers, behind the companies' backs.

adj. 稳定的,安定的,可靠的

This story truly enraged the tech companies, which reacted with much more fury than before. Google and Yahoo announced plans to strengthen and encrypt those links to avoid this kind of surveillance, and a Google security employee even said on his Google+ account what many others must have thought privately: "Fuck these guys."

9. NSA collects text messages

It's not just about Internet data though. The NSA, following its unofficial motto of "collecting it all," intercepts 200 million text messages every day worldwide through a program called Dishfire.

当然这也并不是说,你害怕老板起疑心,就要放弃你在领英上面的简介。但是告诉你,得小心点。其中一点是关掉你的活动广播这样你每一次策略性的行动就不会被所有网民发现,下面教你怎么做,在主页面,光标停在右上角,点击个性设置,在个性设置里面点击活动广播。
In the meantime, the sheer total of bitcoin-related startups that launched in 2014 demonstrates bitcoin’s momentum. There is no definitive listing of every single bitcoin startup, but 2014 almost certainly saw the launch of more of them than in any year prior. Data that AngelList sent to Fortune confirms that. In 2011, five bitcoin startups listed themselves on AngelList. In 2012 that number grew to 13. In 2013 it jumped to 193, and last year it exploded to 566. (But not all startups register on AngelList immediately, if at all.) In addition, on January 8 the total number of daily bitcoin transactions hit an all-time high, as Barry Silbert eagerly tweeted.

Other documents also revealed that the NSA can "easily" crack cellphone encryption, allowing the agency to more easily decode and access the content of intercepted calls and text messages.

10. NSA intercepts all phone calls in two countries

The NSA intercepts and stores all phone calls made in the Bahamas and Afghanistan through a program called MYSTIC, which has its own snazzy logo.

The Bahamas was revealed by The Intercept, Greenwald's new website, while the second was revealed by WikiLeaks, which protested The Intercept's decision to withhold the second country's name.

vi. 流通,循环,传播

Bonus: Edward Snowden's first in-person interview with an American news outlet

(H/T to the site Free Snowden, which has an extensive and detailed list of all the NSA revelations.)